TEMPLE Borobudur is a Buddhist temple, situated in the village of Borobudur in Magelang regency, Central Java, was built by King Smaratungga, one of the king of the ancient Mataram kingdom, the descendants Dynasty dynasty. The name Borobudur is a combination of words and Budur Bara. Bara from Sanskrit means temple or monastery. While Budur derived from the word meaning Beduhur above, thereby Borobudur means monastery on the hill. While according to other sources, means a mountain having terraces (budhara), while other sources say that Borobudur means monastery on the high place. Borobudur-shaped building punden consists of 10 levels, measuring 123 x 123 meters. Height 42 meters before it was renovated and 34.5 meters after the renovation because the lowest level was used as a buffer.
This Buddhist temple has 1460 relief panels and 504 Buddha effigies in its complex. Six lowest level of a square and three levels on top of a circle and the highest level of Buddhist stupa facing to the west. Each level symbolizes the stage of human life. In accordance school of Mahayana Buddhism, every person who wants to reach the level of the Buddha must go through each stage of life is: Kamadhatu, the base of Borobudur, symbolizing human beings that are still bound by lust. Rupadhatu, four levels above it, symbolizing human beings that have set themselves free from lust but still bound manner and form. At these levels, a statue of Buddha placed open. Arupadhatu, three levels above where the Buddhist stupas are laid in holes. Symbolizes man who had been free from lust, appearance, and shape .. Arupa, the top of which symbolizes nirvana, where Buddha is residing. Each level has reliefs that will be read coherently runs clockwise (towards the left of the entrance of the temple).
In the reliefs of Borobudur tells the story of a legendary story, a variety of story content, among other reliefs there on the epic Ramayana, there are also reliefs Jataka stories. In addition, there are relief panels describing the condition of society at that time. For example, relief of farmers' activity reflecting the advance of agriculture system and relief of sailing boat representing the advance of the cruise at that time based in Bergotta (Semarang). All relief panels in Borobudur temple reflect the Buddha's teachings. A Buddhist from India named Atisha, in the 10th century, once visited this temple that was built 3 centuries before Angkor Wat in Cambodia and 4 centuries before the Grand Cathedrals in Europe. Thanks to visiting Borobudur and having supply of Buddha teaching script from Serlingpa (King of Sriwijaya), Atisha was able to develop Buddhism. He became head of monastery Vikramasila and taught Tibetans of practicing Dharma. Six manuscripts of Serlingpa was condensed into a core doctrine called "The Lamp for the Path to Enlightenment" or better known as Bodhipathapradipa. One of the questions still unanswered about Borobudur is how the condition around the temple was built and why the temple was found buried in a state. Some say Borobudur originally stood dikelilingii swamp and then buried by the eruption of Merapi. It is based on Calcutta inscription reads 'Amawa' means sea of milk. The word is then interpreted as lava of Merapi, Borobudur buried by cold lava possibility of Merapi. The villages around Borobudur, like there Wanurejo Karanganyar and activities of people make crafts. In addition, the peak Watu Kendil an ideal spot for a panoramic view from the top of Borobudur. Earthquake May 27, 2006 and had no impact at all on the Borobudur temple so that the building can still be visited.
About three hundred years ago, this place was still a temple grove that by surrounding residents called Redi Borobudur. For the first time, the name of the script Negarakertagama Borobudur known prapanca MPU work in 1365 AD, is mentioned about the monastery in Budur. Then the manuscript Babad Tanah Jawi (1709-1710) there was news of Mas Dana, a rebel against King Pakubowono I, who was caught in Redi Borobudur and sentenced to death. Later in 1758, the news sparked about a prince from Yogyakarta, namely Prince Monconagoro, who would like to see a statue of a knight trapped in a cage. In 1814, Thomas Stamford Raffles received the news of his subordinates about the existence of hill covered with carved stones. Based on the news that Raffles sent Cornelius, an admirer of art and history, to clean up that hill. Once cleaned for two months with the help of 200 residents, the clearer the temple and restoration continued in 1825. In 1834, the Resident Kedu clean the temple again, and in 1842 the temple stupa reviewed for further research.
Regarding the name of Borobudur, as many interpret archaeological experts, including Prof.. Dr.. Borobudur Poerbotjoroko explains that the word is derived from two words Bhoro and Budur. Bhoro derived from Sanskrit which means bihara or dormitories, while the word refers Budur derived from the Balinese word meaning Beduhur above. This opinion is corroborated by Prof.. Dr.. WF. Stutterheim who argued that Borobudur means bihara on top of a hill.
Prof. JG. De Casparis basing on Middle Reef inscription mentioning in this new building, which Sangkala Year: Sagara kstidhara sense, or Çaka year 746 (824 AD), or during the Sailendra dynasty that glorifies God Indra. In the inscription didapatlah Bhumisambharabhudhara name meaning place of worship of the ancestors for the souls of their ancestors. How to shift that word happens to be Borobudur? This occurs because of local pronunciation. Construction of Borobudur Borobudur made during the Buddhist Sailendra dynasty under the leadership of King Samarotthungga. Architecture that creates a temple, named by the public utterances Gunadharma. Construction of the temple was completed in 847 AD According to the inscription Kulrak (784M) making of this temple is assisted by a teacher from Ghandadwipa (Bengalore) named Kumaragacya highly respected, and a prince from Kashmir named Visvawarman as an expert advisor in the teachings of Tantric Vajrayana Buddis.
Construction of the temple began in the Supreme King Dananjaya who holds Sri Sanggramadananjaya, followed by his son, Samarotthungga, and by her granddaughter, Dyah Ayu Pramodhawardhani. Before restoration, the Borobudur Temple in ruins just as well as artifacts newly discovered temple. Subsequent restoration by Cornelius at the Raffles and Resident Hatmann, after that period then performed in 1907-1911 by Theodore van Erp rebuild the order form from the ruins of the temple because of the time eaten up form now. Van Erp actually an engineer building Genie military with the rank of first lieutenant, but later attracted to examine and learn the ins and outs of the Borobudur temple, began his philosophy to the teachings it contains. For that he was trying to do a comparative study for several years in India. He also went to Sri Lanka to see the composition of the Sanchi stupa peak in Kandy, until finally the van Erp discovered form of Borobudur Temple.
While the foundation of philosophy and religion was found by Stutterheim and NJ. Chrome, ie about Buddhism Mahayana Dharma-Yogācāra and there is a tendency also mixed with flow-Tantric Vajrayana. Research on the composition of the temple and the philosophy that carries itself requires substantial time, especially when linked with other temple buildings are still one family. Such as the Borobudur temple with Mendut Pawon and geographically located in one lane.
Borobudur is the second largest temple after Ankor Wat temple in Cambodia. Building area of 15,129 m2 Borobudur composed of 55,000 m3 of rock, from 2 million pieces of rocks. The average stone size 25 cm X 10 cm X 15 cm. The length of the whole piece of stone weighing 500 miles total 1.3 million tons of rock. The walls of Borobudur Temple surrounded by pictures or reliefs which are a series of stories in 1460 terususun panel. The length of each panel is 2 feet. If a series of reliefs that stretched the length of approximately 3 km relief entirely. Number ten levels, levels 1-6 of a square, while the rate of 7-10 circular. Statues found around the temple buildings totaling 504 units. Height of the temple from the ground to the tip of the main stupa was 42 meters, 34.5 meters but now lives after lightning strike
According to the survey Austrian ethnologist-anthropologist Robert von Heine Geldern, the Indonesian nation ancestors are familiar with grammar and culture in the Neolithic era Megalithic originating from South Vietnam and Cambodia. At the Megalithic era ancestors of Indonesia made the tomb of his ancestors at the same place of worship in the form of tiered pyramid building, getting to the top is getting smaller. One was found in the Valley of Sibedug Leuwiliang Bogor West Java. There are also similar buildings in Sukuh near Solo, Borobudur Temple also. If we look from a distance, Borobudur will look like the composition of a staircase or a pyramid and a stupa. Unlike the giant pyramids in Egypt and the Pyramids of Teotihuacan in Mexico Borobudur is another version of the pyramid. Borobudur pyramid kepunden staircase will not be found in the region and any country, including in India. It is one of the advantages of Borobudur temple which is a typical Buddhist architecture in Indonesia. Mystery surrounding Borobudur Until now there are some things that remain a mystery surrounding the founding of Borobudur, for example in terms of rock composition, how to transport the stone from the area of origin to destination, if the stones were already in the desired size or still a original shape of the mountain rock, how long the process of cutting the stones up to the size you want, how to raise the stones from the bottom up to the top of the temple courtyard, a crane is used?. Relief image, whether the stones were installed after the last image, or in a state of plain stone newly sculpted to draw. And the start of the section where the image was carved, from top to bottom or from bottom to top? still many unsolved mysteries in science, especially of space found in the main stupa temple and Buddha statue, in the center or the zenith of the largest stupa temple, supposedly there used to be a statue depiction Adibuddha imperfect which is still a mystery. [ ska]